Adobe provides a mechanism to disable the built-in update engine by deploying a DAT file to a target machine with specific values. More information regarding this dat file can be found at Adobe's website.
In the SCCM console, from the sidebar, select Application Management->Applications->Scripts->EPM - Disable Adobe CC Updates. Right-click and choose to deploy this as you would a typical application.
When building your policy in the Jamf Pro console, you'll want to select the "AdobeAutoUpdateDAT.dmg" for your package. Follow the standard procedure for [deploying software in Casper].